Water Sanistation Process
Water is extremely essential to the survival of human civilization on planet Earth. Without access to clean drinking water, the world's population would perish. The Earth's surface is covered with about 72 percent water. Much of this water is undrinkable without proper treatment or sanitation. As technology improved throughout human civilization, so did the process of making water drinkable. Today, water treatment plants have a standard process of treating different types of contaminated water
Sanitation can be applied to various types of water contamination. Some of these types include human and animal waste, man-made chemicals and pollutants, organic bacteria, non-organic materials, and natural pollutants. If consumed by humans, these types of waste can cause serious illness or even death.
The raw contaminated water must be collected and then pumped into an aeration tank. In the aeration tank, the water is treated with oxygen. The air is sent through diffusers at the bottom of the tank. The air bubbles move the different types of trapped gases to the surface of the water, separating the gases from the waste solids in the tank.
Mixing is important for coagulation and flocculation as it works to disinfect the contaminated water. The speed and the time of the mixing needs to be in-tune with the contamination levels. Mixing is needed to dissolve solid chemicals and polymers, dispense polymer emulsions, and blend the liquid chemicals added to remove the gases.
Sedimentation, or gravity settling, is used at multiple points in the water treatment process. This process separates different types of chemicals and particles in the water. There are different types of settling behaviors that are used for the different contamination levels and types. This ensures that most of the solid materials and chemicals are separate from the water being processed.
Filtering is one of the most important processes in water sanitation. The process involves the passing of water through a bed of sand or other granular equal at a slow speed. The filters of granules hold most of the solid matter while the water passes through. The water should exit the filter very clear and clean. The process can be repeated if water contamination is extreme.
Once the water is filtered, it is disinfected to remove remaining bacteria and microorganisms. This process uses a number of different chemicals. This step can be repeated before distribution to make sure there is not pathogenic microorganisms in the drinking water while in storage. The treated water is tested for color, taste, smell, bacterial levels and pH levels while in storage.
The solid waste from the treated water is removed by a slurry backwash. It is then sent to a waste storage facility. Depending on the type of solid waste, it can then be dumped in a landfill. The federal and state governments limit and regulate how much solid waste can be disposed of in the landfill.